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How to Splice Wires.
What you will need
1. Wire Stripper
2. Lineman's pliers
3. Utility knife
Do not splice wires of different metals; it will cause a chemical reation that will corrode the wires.
Do not use wire splices inside conduit. Either buy enough wire to run the length of the conduit, or insert a box into the conduit and make the connections in the box.
How to Splice Wire
Making good connections with wires is necessary not only to comply with electrical codes but also to ensure the proper functioning of your home’s electrical system and of any appliances you may repair.
There are many situations where you may need to join, or splice, wires. These may include repairing small appliances, replacing electrical cords and making connections inside an electrical switch, receptacle or junction box.
When a wire connection will be inside an electrical box, you can splice the wires with solder-less connectors such as wire caps. If the connection will be exposed, such as a power cord for an appliance, you may prefer to solder the connection and then cover it with electrical tape.
When splicing wires with solder-less connectors, the type of connector to use depends most importantly on the size and number of wires to be joined. Smaller, low-amperage wires, those for a lamp or clock – can be spliced with crimp connectors. Wires up to 10 gauge can be spliced with wire caps that are screwed over the ends of twisted wires. Wires larger then 10 gauge cannot be twisted. They are joined with clamp connectors or split-bolt connectors and insulated with electrical tape.
The first step in connecting wires is almost always removing some of the insulation that covers them. Taking off the insulation without damaging the wire itself is accomplished easily with a wire stripper. (see tools) you can use a penknife or a utility knife to do this, but you are likely to nick the wire and weaken it.
To use a wire stripper, place the wire to be striped in the hole sized for that wire. Close the tool until the insulation is cut through and pull it free.
Electronic devices such as stereo components are usually soldered a job most homeowners do not need to be concerned with. It can be done with either a small soldering iron or a soldering gun. For most household wiring jobs, a soldering iron is adequate.
Splicing with Wire Caps
Wire caps join wires inside an electrical box. Use a wire stripper to strip off about 1 inch of insulation from each of the wire.
Twist the stripped wire ends together with lineman's pliers clockwise for at least 1 1/2 turns. Snip off the excess so the ends are even.
Screw a wire cap on clockwise. Be sure to use the proper size cap for the number and size of wires you are connecting.
Connecting Stranded to Solid Wire.
Remove about 1/2 inch of insulation from the single solid wire and a least 1 inch from the multiple stranded wire.
Holding the two stripped wire ends parallel, wrap the stranded wire around the bottom half of the stripped portion of the solid wire.
Bend the top half of the solid wire back over the wrapped part to ensure a secure connection. Cover the connection with a wire cap.
Splicing a Severed Appliance Cord.
Using a utility knife, split both pieces of electrical cord down the bimmle about 3 inches.
With a wire stripper, remove about 1 inch of insulation from each of the 4 wires.
Make an L-Shaped bend in the end of each of the wires 1/2 inch from where the insulation begins.
Overlap the L bends and then twist one bare wire end ove the other. Snip off any excess wire.
Wrap electrical tape around each splice, overlapping the insulation on either side of the splice.
Tape the spliced ends of the wires together. Cover the splices and overlap the insulation.
A pigtail splice connects more than one wire to a single screw terminal. Remove insulation from the ends of the wires to be joined and from a short length of similar wire. Twist the ends together clockwise, then screw on the correct size wire cap. The free end of the short wire, or pigtail, is then connected to the screw on the terminal.
Using a soldering iron.
If you are using a new soldering iron, allow it to heat up, and then "tin" the tip by melting a small amount of solder evenly over the entire tip. Wipe the excess off on the wet sponge.
If the soldering iron has been used before, plug it in and let it warm up for several minutes; then wipe the tip on a wet sponge to remove old solder and dirt.
When soldering a connection, make sure the work is held steady. If you plan to do a lot of soldering, you may want to purchase a soldering stand. Otherwise, you can use a heavy object, such as a set of pliers. When applying solder, heat the wires to be connected, then touch the solder to the hot wires. This will form a better connection than applying the solder directly to the soldering iron.
Well there you are, now you can repair your broken wires at home without an electrican. Isn't that great. Go have a drink now that your done fixing your wire.